Geophysical fluid dynamics is a primary tool in physical oceanography and meteorology . The rotation of the Earth has profound effects on the Earth's fluid dynamics, often due to the Coriolis effect . In the atmosphere it gives rise to large-scale patterns like Rossby waves and determines the basic circulation patterns of storms. In the ocean they drive large-scale circulation patterns as well as Kelvin waves and Ekman spirals at the ocean surface.  In the Earth's core, the circulation of the molten iron is structured by Taylor columns . 
Among the most highly cited papers in the Journal of Geophysical Research (with over 1000 citations each) are: 
Although the sensitivity of sensors has improved, and new methods have been developed, the most important developments have been automated data logging and computers to handle and process large amounts of data. Continuing improvements in survey equipment performance and automation have made it possible to rapidly survey large areas. Rapid data collection has also made it practical to achieve the high sample densities necessary to resolve small or subtle features. Advances in processing and imaging software have made it possible to detect, display, and interpret subtle archaeological patterning within the geophysical data.
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